Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (J. Bioresour. Bioprod., ISSN 2369-9698), published by Nanjing Forestry University, China, and the University of New Brunswick (UNB), Canada, is a peer-reviewed international journal aimed at disseminating cutting-edge developments of science and engineering in all fields of bio-based materials/chemicals/energy and their applications.

 

The Journal welcomes high-quality reviews, communications, original research articles, perspectives, and commentaries. Contributions should focus on one or more of the following topics:

 

·         Cultivation and characterization of lignocellulosic biomass

·         Structure-property relationships of forest bioproducts and engineering wood products

·         Forest bioresource production and process

·         Chemical and physical modifications of cellulose and bioproducts

·         Conversion of forest bioresources into biomaterials, biochemical, biofuel and bioenergy from lignocelluloses

·         Bio-based nanomaterials and application

·         Bio-based stimuli materials for intelligent application

·         Lignocellulosic products, and cellulose-, hemicellulose-, and lignin-based products and composites

·         Agrochemical carriers from bioresources for plant growth

·         Pulping, papermaking and packaging technology

 

                 

All articles will be submitted to scholarly databases, including Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, ISI), Compendex (Elsevier, Engineering Village), Scopus (Elsevier), SciFinder Scholar (American Chemical Society), and Google Scholar (Google.com).

 

Volume 3, Issue 3 (August 2018)

 


Characterization of primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex to evaluate the feasibility of utilization as a soil amendment agent and a fertilizer product

Risto Pöykiö*, Gary Watkins, Olli Dahl

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 88-95   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.174                                                                                                  PDF Download

 

In this study, we have determined the main important physical and chemical properties as well as the heavy metal concentrations of the primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex located in Finland in order to evaluate the utilization of these by-products as a soil amendment agent or a fertilizer product. Easily soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, P and S concentrations in the sludges were extracted by ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) and easily soluble Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations by CH3COONH4 + Na2EDTA. For the determination of total nutrient and total heavy metal concentrations in sludges, they were digested using aqua regia (3 mL HCl + 9 mL HNO3). The total heavy concentrations in the primary sludge were lower than the Finnish heavy metal limit values for fertilizer products. In the secondary sludge, all other total heavy metals than the total Cd concentration (4.8 mg/kg; d.w.) were lower than the heavy metal limit values for fertilizer products. Due to the low total heavy metal concentrations, which were lower than the Finnish limit values for fertilizer products, the primary sludge is a potential fertilizer. Although the total Cd concentration (4.8 mg/kg; d.w.) in the secondary sludge exceed the limit value of 1.5 mg/kg (d.w.) for fertilizer products, this residue may be used as a soil improver, a growing media or as a fertilizer product in landfill sites or in other closed industrial areas, because the Finnish limit values for fertilizer products are not applied at these sites.

 

1. 2018 3(3) 174 Characterization of primary and secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a pulp and board mill complex

 


Influence of lignin content on enzymatic saccharification of poplar wood chips by different pretreatment methods

Zhihao Wang, Min Zhang, Saisai Li, Yue Zhang, Qiang Wang*, Shanshan Liu*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 96-100   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.136                                                                                               PDF Download

 

Bioconversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars is a promising approach to produce potential bio-based energy and chemicals. Pretreatment is the key step to remove or delocalize lignin in lignocellulose, thus improving enzymatic saccharification efficiency. In this study, three kinds of pretreatment methods (ethanol, bisulfite and sulfate) were employed to produce substrates with various lignin contents which were subsequently subjected to biological saccharification processes. Results showed that a lower lignin content led to a higher fermentable sugar yield based on reducing sugar release for all samples. Additionally, the sulfate pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification efficiency in a greater extent than the others. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the structure changes during pretreatment.

 

2. 2018 3(3) 136 Influence of lignin content on enzymatic saccharification of poplar wood chips by different pretreatment methods

 


Effects of storage time on fuel properties of jatropha biodiesel blends with diesel

Abdulkarim Baba Rabiu, Ajimotokan Habeeb Adewale, Rabiu Abdulkarim Baba*, Lawal Ayodeji Rilwan

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 101-106   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.167                                                                                               PDF Download

 

This study investigates the effects of storage time on the selected fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel blends with diesel. The influence of storage stability on fuel properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, pour, cloud and flash points for different Jatropha biodiesel blends at varying storage times are investigated using standard test methods. The biodiesel obtained through trans-esterification of Jatropha oil is blended with mineral diesel to obtain samples B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel), B40 (40% biodiesel and 60% diesel), B60 (60% biodiesel and 40% diesel) and B100 (100% biodiesel). Results show that kinematic viscosity and density increase for each blend over the 12 weeks of storage period. Flash, cloud and pour points decrease for each blend over the period of study. B20 was observed to be the optimum blend mix as its fuel properties are comparable over the storage period to those of diesel used in the study. It can be implied from the research that while properties like kinematic viscosity and density deteriorate with time; flash, cloud and pour points are observed to have improved with storage time.

 

3. 2018 3(3)  167 The effects of storage time on fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel blends

 


Effect of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the properties of gelatin based composite films

Shuaishuai YANG*, Haichao Li*, Huizhen Sun

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 107-111   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.157                                                                                             PDF Download

 

Properties of gelatin composite films (with 4% glycerol as plasticizer) with different mass concentrations of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) (0.2-1.0%) were investigated. The prepared composite films with 1.0 % MFC showed the highest tensile strength (12.32 MPa) with the lowest water absorption rate (391.1 %). The composite films can be dissolved in hot water of 95°C in less than 5 minutes. However, the addition of MFC had insignificant effect on the heat shrinkage and light transmittance of the resultant composite films.

 

4. 2018 3(3) 157 Effect of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the properties of gelatin based composite films

 


Isolation and characterization of lignin extracted from corn stalk rind with organic acids

Qingzhi Ma, Zhiyong Li, Lifang Guo, Yan Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Jianfeng Xi, Hao Ren, Huaming Zhai*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 112-117   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.127                                                                                                PDF Download

 

Lignin was extracted from corn stalk rind with organic acids based on the concept of biorefinery. The optimum conditions for precipitating lignin from the concentrated spent liquor of the biorefinery process were achieved at pH of 1.68-1.72 by the addition of water. Considerable amount of sugars, uronic acids and proteins were found in the isolated lignin, which had acid-endurable linkages with lignin. The lignin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl group contents of the lignin were measured to be 0.45 mmol/g and 0.41 mmol/g, respectively. The lignin of corn stalk rind was found to be of guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) lignin. Acetylation and condensation reactions occurred during the biorefinery process. pho-coumaric acids were found to be esterified with lignin, whereas ferulic acids were mainly linked to lignin by phenolic groups via ether bonds. The weight-average and number-average molecular weight of the lignin were 2830 g/mol and 994 g/mol, respectively.

 

5. 2018 3(3) 127 Isolation and characterization of lignin extracted from corn stalk rind with organic acids

 


Fe/C micro electrolysis and Fenton oxidation process for the removal of recalcitrant colored pollutants from mid-stage pulping effluent

Mingyou Liu*, Lu Wang, Xianying Xiao, Zhibin He*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 118-122   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.56                                                                                                PDF Download

 

The pulp and paper industry produces a large amount of colored effluent in the pulping, bleaching, and papermaking processes. The wastewater from the pulp washing and bleaching stages is also known as mid-stage pulping effluent, which is difficult to treat due to its toxicity and dark dolor. This paper reports a novel Fe/C micro-electrolysis process for the treatment of the mid-stage pulping effluent. Results show that this process is effective in removing the color under optimal reaction conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses indicate that the colored pollutants were removed from the wastewater in the Fe/C micro-electrolysis by adsorption, collection and filtration mechanisms. The Fe2+ ions produced in the micro-electrolysis process functioned as Fenton’s reagents with H2O2 in the follow-up oxidation stage, which enhanced the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color.

 

6. 2018 3(3) 56 Fe/C micro electrolysis and Fenton oxidation process for the removal of recalcitrant colored pollutants from mid-stage pulping effluent

 


Synthesis of Caboxymethyl Chitosan for the fabrication of Chitosan/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Xuejiao Liu, Yi Jing*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 123-127   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.116                                                                                             PDF Download

 

Chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites can impart water vapor and oxygen barrier and antimicrobial properties to paper. However, this application is limited by the low water-solubility of chitosan. Carboxymethylation can increase the water-solubility of chitosan. In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan was synthesized by grafting with chloroacetic acid, and intercalated montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by intercalation of carboxymethyl chitosan with sodium-based montmorillonite. The process conditions were optimized for the fabrication of nanocomposites. Characterizations were conducted by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XRD. FT-IR and 1H-NMR results showed that carboxyl groups were introduced into the chitosan, and carboxymethyl chitosan was generated. XRD results confirmed the insertion of CM-CTS into interlayers of Na+-MMT. As indicated from XRD results, chemical modification of chitosan resulted in enhanced intercalation. Carboxymethyl chitosan resulted in formation of exfoliated chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites.

 

7. 2018 3(3) 116 Synthesis of Caboxymethyl Chitosan for the fabrication of ChitosanMontmorillonite Nanocomposites

 


Identification and characterization of slime-producing microorganisms in papermaking water loops using emulsion polymerase chain reaction techniques

Liuxin Shi, Gang Shi, Rongxia Zhuge, Qiang Cheng, Fangfang Wu, Yonghao Ni*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(3), 128-133   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i3.176                                                                                        PDF Download    

 

Slime formation on paper machines is a critical issue that can substantially impact the quantity and quality of paper production. This problem is caused by the growth of an abundant and diverse amount of bacteria. Through the application of emulsion polymerase chain reaction (emPCR), the bacterial diversity was analyzed on paper machines and more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. Eleven types of bacterial phyla were found that have been previously identified, including Proteobacteria (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, epsilon-, and phi-), Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Armatimonadetes. Furthermore, for the first time, there were representatives of the phyla Lentisphaerae found on paper machines. This study revealed the wide bacterial diversities of slime found on paper machines in China, which was also similar to other industrial processes.

 

8. 2018 3(3) 176 Identification and characterization of slime-producing microorganisms in papermaking water loops using emulsion polymerase chain reaction techniques