Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (J. Bioresour. Bioprod., ISSN 2369-9698), published by Nanjing Forestry University, China, and the University of New Brunswick (UNB), Canada, is a peer-reviewed international journal aimed at disseminating cutting-edge developments of science and engineering in all fields of bio-based materials/chemicals/energy and their applications.

 

The Journal welcomes high-quality reviews, communications, original research articles, perspectives, and commentaries. Contributions should focus on one or more of the following topics:

 

         Cultivation and characterization of lignocellulosic biomass

         Structure-property relationships of forest bioproducts and engineering wood products

         Forest bioresource production and process

         Chemical and physical modifications of cellulose and bioproducts

         Conversion of forest bioresources into biomaterials, biochemical, biofuel and bioenergy from lignocelluloses

         Bio-based nanomaterials and application

         Bio-based stimuli materials for intelligent application

         Lignocellulosic products, and cellulose-, hemicellulose-, and lignin-based products and composites

         Agrochemical carriers from bioresources for plant growth

         Pulping, papermaking and packaging technology

 

                 

All articles will be submitted to scholarly databases, including Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, ISI), Compendex (Elsevier, Engineering Village), Scopus (Elsevier), SciFinder Scholar (American Chemical Society), and Google Scholar (Google.com).

 

Volume 3, Issue 4 (November 2018)

 


Pickering emulsion polymerization of styrene stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose

Xue Song, Mingqin Lin, Changsheng Song, Zipei Shi, Heng Zhang*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 134-138   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.92                                                                              PDF Download

 

In this work, polystyrene-based oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was formulated. The NCC was prepared by sulfuric-acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose, with a yield of 60% and an average particle size of about 152.9 nm. When the content of NCC was 5 g/L, the surface tension was 54.58 mN/m, and stable styrene-based Pickering emulsion was prepared using NCC as the stabilizer. The presence of NCC particles in the emulsion system resulted in high resistance against creaming. Due to improved stability, the conversion efficiency of styrene was higher in the polymerization process of the styrene-based Pickering emulsion.

 

1. 2018 3(4) 92 Pickering emulsion polymerization of styrene stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose

 


Synthesis and characterization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) grafted eucalyptus fibers

Lifang Guo, Jun Huang, Jianfeng Xi, Qingyang Ye, Huamin Zhai*, Xiaojun Wang

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 139-144   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.126                                                                             PDF Download

 

Graft-copolymerization of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers was carried out with glycidyl methacrylate monomer by using Fe2+-thiourea dioxide-H2O2 as an initiator system. The cellulose-poly(glycidyl methacrylate) graft copolymers (CPGMA) were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectra (13C CP/MAS NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed the grafting percent was from 0 to 244%, the epoxy group content from 0 to 4.37 mmol/g, and the grafting efficiency over 97%, when the grafting percent exceeded 38%. Additionally, the morphological analysis denoted that the grafting not only took place on the fiber surface, but also inside the fiber wall. Both FTIR and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR analysis identified the occurrence of grafting. Fiber crystallinity was strongly affected by the percent grafting, decreasing from 69.8% (eucalyptus pulp) to 26.2% at the percent grafting of 198%. TGA analytical data indicated that GMA grafting resulted in the reduction of thermal stability of eucalyptus fibers at the percent grafting of 198%.

 

2. 2018 3(4) 126 Synthesis and characterization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) grafted eucalyptus fibers

 


On the role of medium components in bio-surfactant production from Achromobacter xylos GSR21

Golamari Siva Reddy, Kamma Srinivasulu, Botlagunta Mahendran, Ronda Srinivasa Reddy*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 145-150   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.172                                                                              PDF Download

 

This paper, for the first time, reports the optimization of the critical medium components for bio-surfactant production from achromobacter xylos strain GSR21 using statistical experimental design. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimal levels of process variables (agar powder, yeast extract, FeSO47H2O, and KH2PO4). Central composite design (CCD) of RSM was used to study the four variables at five levels, and bio-surfactant concentration was measured as response. Regression coefficients were calculated by regression analysis, and the model equation was determined. R2 value for bio-surfactant (g/L) was tested to be 0.7222, indicating that the model fitted well with the experimental results. Verification of the mathematical model was conducted by performing the experiment with the predicted optimized values, and bio-surfactant yield was found to be 9.69 g/L. Validation of the predicted model was fitted 96.9% with the experimental results conducted under the optimum conditions. Agar powder and yeast extract was identified as efficient components for bio-surfactant (achromobacter xylos GSR21) production.

 

3. 2018 3(4) 172 On the role of medium components in bio-surfactant production from Achromobacter xylos GSR21

 


Leaching characteristics of biomass fly ash in water and a TMP spent liquor: a case study

Germaine Cave, Pedram Fatehi*

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 151-160   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.178                                                                            PDF Download

 

Fly ash is considered as an under-utilized product of pulp and paper industry and is mainly land-filled. However, it can be repurposed as an adsorbent for organics of wastewater effluents. Despite efficient adsorption capability, its metal components may dissolve in wastewater and harm the environment. This investigation focused on the leaching behavior of metals from biomass-based fly ash in water at pH 6 and 12.5. A similar investigation was performed in the spent liquor of a pulping process to evaluate the extraction of metals from fly ash in such an environment that fly ash could be used as an adsorbent. The results revealed that the predominant metals leached from fly ash in water and the spent liquor were Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Si. The trace metals including Al, Ba, Sr, and Zn were also detected to a significant extent. Interestingly, the extraction of metals from fly ash in spent liquor was more limited than in water, which is beneficial for the application of fly ash in spent liquors.

 

4. 2018 3(4) 178 Leaching characteristics of biomass fly ash in water and a TMP spent liquor a case study

 


Synthesis and characterization of starch nanoparticles from cassava Peel

Selvaraju Sivamani*, Karuppasamy Archana, Ramu Santhosh, Natesan Sivarajasekar, Naveen Prasad B S

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 161-165   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.179                                                                               PDF Download

 

Starch nanoparticles are used as a matrix with natural rubber for tire making, alternative adsorbents for wastewater treatment, drug carriers, packaging materials, emulsion stabilizers and fat replacers. The objective of this study is to prepare the starch nanoparticles from cassava peel by mineral acid hydrolysis using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids and perform the characterization of starch nanoparticles with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)It was found that the obtained yield of starch nanoparticles by H2SO4was higher than that by HCl.

 

5. 2018 3(4) 179 Synthesis and characterization of starch nanoparticles from cassava Peel

 


A Lignin-Derived Carbonaceous Acid for Efficient Catalytic Hydrolysis of Cellulose

Linhuo Gan*, Jundong Zhu

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 166-171   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.99                                                                               PDF Download

 

A solid acid catalyst was prepared from masson pine alkali lignin in waste liquor of soda pulping by a combined process of chemical activation, carbonization, and sulfonation. The lignin-derived solid acid (LDSA) was characterized by FESEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, XPS, BET analyses, and acid-base back titration. The carbonaceous material had high thermal stability and large specific surface area (488.4 m2/g), and the structural analyses showed that it was composed of amorphous carbon bearing -SO3H, -COOH, and phenolic -OH groups. The lignin-derived catalyst was then applied to the hydrolysis of a microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in aqueous system, and the yield of total reducing sugars was found to be 46.1%. It was proposed that good adsorption capacities of cellulose and desorption property of glucose on LDSA probably contributed to efficient catalytic hydrolysis.

 

6. 2018 3(4) 99 A Lignin-Derived Carbonaceous Acid for Efficient Catalytic Hydrolysis of Cellulose

 


Variations of cetane number of jatropha biodiesel blends with mineral diesel

Ayodeji Opeyemi Folayan*, Habeeb A Ajimotokan

 

J. Bioresour. Bioprod. 3(4), 172-179   Original Paper           DOI: 10.21967/jbb.v3i4.173                                                                            PDF Download

 

Cetane number (CN)- a prime indicator of diesel fuel quality, is a quantity indicating the combustion behaviour of diesel fuel and compression required for ignition in diesel engines. This study examines the determination of CN of Jatropha biodiesel blends with mineral diesel using their physical properties, and their variations of CN with percentage composition of Jatropha biodiesel in the blends. Jatropha biodiesel, converted through a transesterification process of its oil, is obtained and blended with diesel to obtain blend B10 (10% biodiesel and 90% diesel) on a volumetric basis, at 25oC ambient temperature and the same basis was employed for blends B20, B30, B40 and B50. The specific gravity and mid-distillation characteristic were obtained using a hydrometer and distillation curve apparatus based on ASTM D1298 and D86 standards respectively. The CN of Jatropha oil, its biodiesel and Jatropha biodiesel blends with diesel were analytically determined, employing the empirical relationship between measured physical properties of a two-variable cetane index equation. The results show that the CN of the Jatropha biodiesel increases significantly (about 29%) after transesterification compared with that of the Jatropha oil. Moreover, the specific gravity and CN of the blends increase with the percentage composition of Jatropha biodiesel in the blends. The CN of Jatropha biodiesel is 44.10, which is 8.7% higher than that of mineral diesel (40.62). It can be implied from the research outcomes that blending Jatropha biodiesel with diesel increases the CN of the blends, thus, could be used as cetane point (number) enhancer.

 

7. 2018 3(4) 173 Variations of cetane number of jatropha biodiesel blends with mineral diesel